Organic materials and ricePadi SRI : Pembajaan Organik dan Faedahnya

Saya mencari maklumat mengenai perbezaan diantara penanaman padi didalam air (anaerobic conditions) dan penanaman padi ditanah yang acap-acap airnya (aerobic conditions).  Saya menjumpai sebuah artikel bertajuk “Organic Materials and Rice” oleh Roland J. Buresh dan Achim Dobermann yang merupakan Principal Scientist dan Deputy Director General for Research, IRRI, Manila, Philippines.

Di bawah ini saya letakkan abstrak artikel tersebut untuk rujukan anda.

Organic materials and rice

Roland J. Buresh and Achim Dobermann

Principal Scientist and Deputy Director General for Research

International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines

Abstract

Increased prices of manufactured fertilizers and concerns about the sustainability of intensive cropping systems have led some countries to promote organic materials as a source of nutrients for crops and as an amendment to improve soil properties. The effects of organic materials on crop production and soil properties are quite different for lowland rice grown on submerged soil than for other crops grown on well-drained, aerobic soil. The submergence and management of rice soils results in biological and chemical processes leading to uniquely different nutrient cycling, nutrient supply to crops, and decomposition of organic materials than in well-drained, aerobic soils.

Organic materials are derived from animal or plant materials. They include crop residues, plant biomass, green manures, farmyard manures, composts, household wastes, industrial and urban wastes, and commercial products produced from plant and/or animal materials. They typically have less benefit on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of submerged rice soils than on well-drained, aerobic soils. The most probable benefit of organic materials for rice on submerged soil is as a source of essential nutrients. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in organic materials seldom matches the ratio of these nutrients needed by rice. Organic materials including crop residues applied in sufficient quantities can often meet much or all the K and even P needs of a rice crop, but they seldom meet the N needs of a rice crop. Synthetic manufactured fertilizers can then be applied to meet the additional needs of the crop for nutrients, especially N, which is seldom applied in sufficient quantities with organic materials without excessive application of P and K.

Organic fertilizers refer to a specific group of organic materials produced from decomposed plant or animal materials and used as a source of nutrients for crops. The decision on whether to use organic fertilizers for rice should be based on the financial return from organic fertilizer relative to the financial return from synthetic manufactured fertilizer as a source of an equivalent quantity of essential nutrient for the rice crop. When organic fertilizer is financially attractive, the most effective way to supply a balanced amount of N, P, and K exactly matching the needs of the rice crop for each nutrient is to include the use of some synthetic manufactured fertilizer.

Jika anda berminat membaca artikel yang lengkap, sila muat turunkan disini Organic materials and rice .

Secara ringkas, artikel ini memberikan perbezaan diantara padi yang ditanam dalam air dengan tanaman yang ditanam ditanah yang mendapat saliran yang baik (well-drained). Kedua keadaan ini menjurus kepada perbezaan yang unik dalam kitaran pemakanan, bekalan nutrien kepada tanaman, dan cara pereputan bahan organik masing-masing.

Bahan organik berasal dari haiwan dan tumbuhan. Ini termasuklah sisa tanaman dan hasil buangan haiwan, kompos, buangan daari dapur, sis industri dan bandar, serta hasil tanaman dan/atau bahan haiwan. Semua bahan organik ini kurang mendatangkan faedah kepada tanaman jika ia ditenggelami oleh air.  Telah didapati bahawa apabila bahan organik dibekalkan dengan cukup, keperluan K dan P mencukupi untuk pertumbuhan pokok padi, tetapi keperluan N masih berkurangan. Baja kimia tambahan boleh digunakan bagi mencukupkan keperluan tanaman padi, terutamanya keperluan N. Dengan ini P dan K hanya perlu ditambah sedikit sahaja.

Faedah yang dibawa dengan kegunaan bahan organik sebagai baja di atas tanah yang mempunyai saliran yang baik (well-drained) adalah:

1. Memperbaiki sifat fisikal tanah (Improve soil physical properties).

2. Meningkatkan aktiviti biologi tanah (Aerobic soil supports a greater diversity of organisms than submerged or inaerobic soil).

3. Memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah (Greatest benefit on soil with low cation exchange capacity).

4. Menyediakan sumber nutrien berasaskan tanaman (greatest benefit from fast decomposing materials high in nutrient content).

Secara ringkas, bahan organik menyuburkan tanah dengan cara semulajadi dan membekalkan nutrien kepada tanaman. Baja kimia hanya membekalkan nutrien untuk tanaman.

Peranan Baja Organik vs Baja Kimia

Peranan Baja Organik vs Baja Kimia

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